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Retaining Wall permits shall be required for a wall segment more than four (4) feet in height, measured from the final grade at lower-side of wall to the top of the wall, where such activity is not part of an approved preliminary plat or large scale development. There are four main phases to the retaining wall permit process; Application, review and approval, routine inspections and a final inspection to close out the permit. If approved, a copy of the retaining wall permit shall be posted at or near the street right-of-way line and shall be clearly visible from the street.


Background: Considerable debate remains regarding the use of posterior cruciate-retaining or posterior cruciate-stabilizing designs for total knee arthroplasty. Multiple studies have investigated kinematic, radiographic, and clinical outcomes of both. Nevertheless, long-term survivorship analyses directly comparing the two designs have not been performed, to our knowledge. Our goal was to analyze the fifteen-year survival of posterior cruciate-retaining and posterior cruciate-stabilizing total knee replacements at our institution.

Methods: A retrospective review identified 8117 total knee arthroplasties (5389 posterior cruciate-retaining and 2728 posterior cruciate-stabilizing) that had been performed from 1988 to 1998. This range was chosen because both designs were used in high volumes at our institution during this period. Patients were followed via our total joint registry at one, two, and five years after the arthroplasty and every five years thereafter. Aseptic revision surgery was the primary end point of our analysis. Implant survival was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: Survival at fifteen years was 90% for posterior cruciate-retaining total knee replacements, compared with 77% for posterior cruciate-stabilizing total knee replacements (p

Conclusions: In evaluating the implants used at our institution for total knee arthroplasty during the study period, posterior cruciate-retaining prostheses had significantly improved survival in comparison with posterior cruciate-stabilizing prostheses at fifteen years. Furthermore, this significant difference remained when accounting for age, sex, diagnosis, and deformity.

When is a Retaining Wall Permit required?Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil. They are used to bound soils between two different elevations. A Retaining Wall Permit is required when installing a new retaining wall or replacing an existing retaining wall on residential and commercial properties.

When is a Retaining Wall Permit NOT required?A separate Retaining Wall Permit is not required when it is four (4) feet or less from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall at the same section, and does not support a surcharge. All retaining walls require an indemnification letter.

Who can apply for a Retaining Wall Permit?A Retaining Wall Permit can be obtained by licensed contractor or the property owner. In order for the property owner to obtain a permit, the property must be their current permanent residence. A professional engineer signed/sealed design is required for all retaining walls six (6) feet or taller.

A permit is required to install a retaining wall if the height of the wall measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall is over 48 inches, unless supporting a surcharge. Section R404 of the residential building code requires retaining walls that retain more than 48 inches of unbalanced soil or retaining walls exceeding 24 inches in height that retain additional loads in addition to the unbalanced soil to be designed by a Maryland State Licensed Design Professional to ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.

Measurement of Height: Wall height is measured from the lowest level of the grade abutting a wall.Height and Placement: The maximum height of a retaining wall or wall is 6' 6". Except as follows:

When you install a retaining wall you will be changing the grading of the land. Therefore, unless you are applying for a Pool, or Sport Court Permit, you will have to file a Grading and Clearing Permit application. This Application is available from the Engineering Division and is also available in the Forms, Permits and Licenses section of the Home Page listed as Grading and Clearing. There is a fee of $100 per each 50 linear feet of retaining wall proposed required with the application. The retaining wall location, size and type of material being used to construct the wall will have to be shown on the application documents. Walls which measure over thirty inches (2 and 1/2/ feet) at its highest point require engineering drawings produced by a licensed professional engineer, architect or landscape architect, and a safety barrier. The intent of the safety barrier is to prevent children from falling over the wall. The safety barrier must be four feet high, impenetrable by children, and located at the outer edge of the wall for its entire length. Landscaping does not constitute a safety barrier.

If you are constructing a retaining wall in conjunction with the installation of a pool or sport court, then you do not need to obtain a separate Grading and Clearing Permit as long as you clearly indicate on the survey or grading plan attached to your permit application the location of the retaining wall you intend to construct. For retaining walls over 30" in height, include the wall design certified by a licensed professional engineer.

Whether slowly cycling or quiescent stem cells co-exist with more rapidly cycling stem cells in the intestinal crypt is a matter of intense debate. Using a new method to trace the lineage of slowly cycling label-retaining cells (LRCs) in vivo, Douglas Winton and colleagues have identified a population of LRCs that has features of committed Paneth cells but still expresses stem cell markers such as Lgr5. The slowly cycling cells differentiate into Paneth cells without cell division, but in response to injury, they can also repopulate the stem cell niche and contribute to the regeneration of the all intestinal lineages. This work suggests that quiescent cells do act as a clonogenic reserve that could play a part in the pathology of intestinal cancers and inflammation.

Retaining walls over 4 feet in height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall and retaining walls of any height that support a surcharge such as a slope or structure require a building permit. I have determined that a permit is required for my project.

Population ageing has outpaced the growth of workers in the long-term care (LTC) sector and the sector struggles with attracting and retaining enough workers to care for those dependent on others for care. Non-standard work is widespread, pay levels tend to be lower than similar-qualification jobs in other health sectors, and LTC workers experience more health problems than other health workers. Further, educational requirements tend to be insufficient to perform more demanding and growing tasks of LTC. With growing demand for care at home, better co-ordination between the health and long-term care sectors and between formal and informal careers is needed.

Retaining a student in the same grade is a costly educational intervention, if students (as intended) spend an additional year in full-time public education as a result. Given average per pupil spending of roughly $10,700 (the most recent national estimate), the direct cost to society of retaining 2.3 percent of the 50 million students enrolled in American schools exceeds $12 billion annually. This estimate excludes the cost of any remedial services provided specifically to students repeating a grade, as well as any earnings foregone by retained students due to their delayed entry into the labor market.

NCMA members provide a wide variety of hardscape products for all types of applications. Segmental retaining walls can be used for earth-retention projects, articulating concrete block can be used for erosion control, and fence walls can be used to provide privacy and architectural enhancements to communities. The opportunities to utilize hardscapes into projects are limitless. Produced and distributed locally, hardscape products support local communities. And these systems can be used from small landscape walls in backyards to tall walls in commercial and institutional applications. Find out more about segmental retaining walls, articulating concrete block, and fence walls, and get technical information and support, browse case studies and project profiles below. 350c69d7ab


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