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Collectively, these results indicate that increasing dietary protein can promote favorable adaptations in body composition through the promotion of fat-free mass accretion when combined with a hyperenergetic diet and a heavy resistance training program and can also promote the loss of fat mass when higher intakes of daily protein (2-3 the RDA) are combined with an exercise program and a hypoenergetic diet.

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There are 20 total amino acids, comprised of 9 EAAs and 11 non-essential amino acids (NEAAs). EAAs cannot be produced in the body and therefore must be consumed in the diet. Several methods exist to determine protein quality such as Chemical Score, Protein Efficiency Ratio, Biological Value, Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and most recently, the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation (IAAO) technique. Ultimately, in vivo protein quality is typically defined as how effective a protein is at stimulating MPS and promoting muscle hypertrophy [146]. Overall, research has shown that products containing animal and dairy-based proteins contain the highest percentage of EAAs and result in greater hypertrophy and protein synthesis following resistance training when compared to a vegetarian protein-matched control, which typically lacks one or more EAAs [86, 93, 147].

Several studies, but not all, [148] have indicated that EAAs alone stimulate protein synthesis in the same magnitude as a whole protein with the same EAA content [98]. For example, Borsheim et al. [52] found that 6 g of EAAs stimulated protein synthesis twice as much as a mixture of 3 g of NEAAs combined with 3 g of EAAs. Moreover, Paddon-Jones and colleagues [96] found that a 180-cal supplement containing 15 g of EAAs stimulated greater rates of protein synthesis than an 850-cal meal with the same EAA content from a whole protein source. While important, the impact of a larger meal on changes in circulation and the subsequent delivery of the relevant amino acids to the muscle might operate as important considerations when interpreting this data. In contrast, Katsanos and colleagues [148] had 15 elderly subjects consume either 15 g of whey protein or individual doses of the essential and nonessential amino acids that were identical to what is found in a 15-g whey protein dose on separate occasions. Whey protein ingestion significantly increased leg phenylalanine balance, an index of muscle protein accrual, while EAA and NEAA ingestion exerted no significant impact on leg phenylalanine balance. This study, and the results reported by others [149] have led to the suggestion that an approximate 10 g dose of EAAs might serve as an optimal dose to maximally stimulate MPS and that intact protein feedings of appropriate amounts (as opposed to free amino acids) to elderly individuals may stimulate greater improvements in leg muscle protein accrual.

It is well known that exercise improves net muscle protein balance and in the absence of protein feeding, this balance becomes more negative. When combined with protein feeding, net muscle protein balance after exercise becomes positive [161]. Norton and Layman [150] proposed that consumption of leucine, could turn a negative protein balance to a positive balance following an intense exercise bout by prolonging the MPS response to feeding. In support, the ingestion of a protein or essential amino acid complex that contains sufficient amounts of leucine has been shown to shift protein balance to a net positive state after intense exercise training [46, 150]. Even though leucine has been demonstrated to independently stimulate protein synthesis, it is important to recognize that supplementation should not be with just leucine alone. For instance, Wilson et al. [139] demonstrated in an animal model that leucine consumption resulted in a lower duration of protein synthesis compared to a whole meal. In summary, athletes should focus on consuming adequate leucine content in each of their meals through selection of high-quality protein sources [139].

Egg protein is often thought of as an ideal protein because its amino acid profile has been used as the standard for comparing other dietary proteins [168]. Due to their excellent digestibility and amino acid content, eggs are an excellent source of protein for athletes. While the consumption of eggs has been criticized due to their cholesterol content, a growing body of evidence demonstrates the lack of a relationship between egg consumption and coronary heart disease, making egg-based products more appealing [176]. One large egg has 75 kcal and 6 g of protein, but only 1.5 g of saturated fat while one large egg white has 16 kcal with 3.5 g of protein and is fat-free. Research using eggs as the protein source for athletic performance and body composition is lacking, perhaps due to less funding opportunities relative to funding for dairy. Egg protein may be particularly important for athletes, as this protein source has been demonstrated to significantly increase protein synthesis of both skeletal muscle and plasma proteins after resistance exercise at both 20 and 40 g doses. Leucine oxidation rates were found to increase following the 40 g dose, suggesting that this amount exceeds an optimal dose [31]. In addition to providing a cost effective, high-quality source of protein rich in leucine (0.5 g of leucine per serving), eggs have also been identified as a functional food [177]. Functional foods are defined as foods that, by the presence of physiologically active components, provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition [178]. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, functional foods should be consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels [179]. Thus, it is essential that athletes select foods that meet protein requirements and also optimize health and prevent decrements in immune function following intense training. Important nutrients provided by eggs include riboflavin (15% RDA), selenium (17% RDA) and vitamin K (31% RDA) [177]. Eggs are also rich in choline, a nutrient which may have positive effects on cognitive function [180]. Moreover, eggs provide an excellent source of the carotenoid-based antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin [181]. Also, eggs can be prepared with most meal choices, whether at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Such positive properties increase the probability of the athletes adhering to a diet rich in egg protein.

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